The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been a global leader in supporting critical wind energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) for decades, helping usher in commercial wind energy production. These investments have contributed to the rise of today’s wind energy sector.
This offshore wind energy strategy outlines DOE’s approach for accelerating the development of U.S. offshore wind to deploy 30 gigawatts (GW) of capacity by 2030 and establish a pathway to deploying 110 GW or more by 2050.1 As a critical part of this pathway, this strategy seeks to also support deployment of 15 GW of floating offshore wind capacity by 2035, as announced by the Biden administration in September 2022.2
In January 2022, DOE issued a nationwide strategy3 that outlined broad priority areas for accelerating the sustainable development of offshore wind energy in the U.S. This strategy summary outlines DOE’s contributions to meeting the challenges indicated in the nationwide plan, including the need to reduce the levelized cost of energy; expand predictable leasing and permitting processes; develop the domestic supply chain; and expand transmission. DOE’s efforts form part of a broader all-of-government approach to advancing offshore wind energy and strengthening the U.S. transmission grid as part of the nation’s clean energy future.
For more than a decade, DOE has led a robust portfolio of RDD&D, analysis, and stakeholder engagement to advance offshore wind energy in the U.S. and support the transmission system upgrades that enable it. DOE supports the development of critical technologies through research, innovation, coordinated planning efforts, technical assistance programs, community engagement, demonstration projects, and federal loans for clean energy deployment, transmission buildout, and supply chain development.
DOE regularly partners with numerous federal, state, local and tribal government agencies and organizations; domestic and international private and public energy entities; and its national laboratories. DOE collaborates with U.S. agencies, such as the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) to help inform siting and leasing, and coordinates efforts closely with the U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Transportation, and others to advance offshore wind energy while protecting biodiversity and ocean co-use.
Through this strategy, DOE outlines a plan to bring its complement of programs and resources to bear to support offshore wind, in partnership and collaboration with the parties mentioned above, as the agency seeks to steward its annual appropriations and new resources under the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and Inflation Reduction Act.
Together with its federal partners, DOE envisions a future in which offshore wind energy is not only a critical part of the nation’s decarbonized economy and climate solution, but is developed in a way that is economic, reliable, sustainable, just and timely, Fig. 1.
Offshore wind is a growing source of reliable and clean energy around the world, with over 50 GW installed across more than 250 projects, as of mid-2022. The U.S. has just begun to tap the vast resource potential along its coasts, with seven turbines (42 MW) installed off Rhode Island and Virginia as of 2022, but it has a project pipeline of 40 GW planned.4 In addition to the federal offshore wind target of 30 GW by 2030 and 15 GW of floating offshore wind by 2035, individual U.S. states’ policies aim to procure at least 39 GW by 2040.5
With over 4,200 GW of technical resource potential, offshore wind could meet today’s U.S. electricity demands by more than three times.6,7 A single, offshore, wind power plant can deliver a significant amount of energy to coastal load areas, which tend to suffer from transmission congestion and limited siting options for large-scale, land-based renewable energy generation. The potential scale of offshore wind energy’s deployment, and its access to the nation’s highest and most reliable wind speeds, makes this generation source a crucial infrastructure investment, and one that can help revitalize coastal communities, including ports and manufacturing facilities.
Achieving the administration’s goal of 30 GW by 2030 would translate to more than 77,300 employed workers in jobs induced by offshore wind activity; capital investments in offshore wind energy projects of more than $12 billion per year; and 5-10 new manufacturing plants (for producing wind turbine nacelles, blades, towers, foundations, and subsea cables).8 Infrastructure investments also include marshaling ports, fabrication ports, and large installation vessels for a total of approximately $11 billion needed by 2030 to support the manufacture, transport and installation of major offshore wind energy components.9
NATIONAL OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY PRIORITY NEEDS
This strategy builds on the 2022 Offshore Wind Energy Strategies report10 published by DOE, in coordination with other federal agencies, that outlines the following regional and national challenges and strategies to accelerate offshore wind energy deployment in the U.S., Fig. 2.
Reducing offshore wind energy costs. The average cost of offshore wind energy generation in the U.S. is above that of many other generation sources. Additionally, at the time of publication, offshore wind projects are facing challenges associated with rising costs, due to inflation and the rising cost of capital. Reducing the generation cost is a need for both fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind systems, though reducing that cost is a particular area of emphasis for floating offshore. Floating offshore wind systems are at an earlier commercial and technological stage, with costs that tend to be above those of fixed-bottom offshore wind systems.
Supporting optimized siting and regulation. The extent of lease areas available for offshore wind energy development will need to grow considerably in the coming decades to meet longer-term state and federal deployment goals. Future offshore wind leasing also requires increased certainty in timing and processes, and careful consideration of ocean co-use, environmental sustainability, benefits to underserved communities, and energy justice.
Investing in supply chain development. The nation is readying for its first commercial-scale offshore wind energy projects, although the domestic supply chain is not yet mature enough to manufacture all key components needed to reach the Biden administration goals, as well as serve global markets.
Planning the grid integration of offshore wind energy. Most U.S. coastal areas lack adequate transmission capacity to bring gigawatt-scale production from offshore wind turbines to coastal load centers. Accordingly, there is a need to deploy offshore and onshore transmission networks to deliver offshore wind power and improve reliability and resilience, and to enable dynamic cable solutions for floating offshore wind energy.
The 2022 Offshore Wind Energy Strategies report also identifies expanded federal incentives related to offshore wind energy as a challenge area.11 Since the publication of that report, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 was passed,12 which extends tax credits for clean energy and manufacturing. These tax credits have the potential to support offshore wind market growth, as well as the development of a domestic supply chain,13 and may help address some of the challenges associated with rising project costs.
OFFSHORE WIND TECHNOLOGY TYPES
Offshore wind turbines are the largest rotating structures ever built and are highly complex systems. These systems can be broadly categorized into fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind systems. Deployment of offshore wind energy across all major U.S. coastal areas requires using both fixed-bottom and floating substructures because of varying water depths.
Fixed-bottom substructures are secured in the seabed by monopiles, “jacketed” lattice-type frames, or gravity or suction bucket anchors and are typically deployed in water depths of 60 m or less. Floating wind turbines are mounted on buoyant platforms or substructures and connected to the seabed, using mooring lines and anchors, typically in water depths exceeding 60 m.15 From the total offshore wind resource potential of 4.2 GW, more than 65% is in deep waters, requiring floating platforms, Fig. 3.16
Floating offshore wind energy development is anticipated to take place along the Pacific Coast, Gulf of Maine, Hawaii, and deeper water areas off the entire U.S. coastline. Furthermore, it is at an earlier technological and commercial stage, and more research, development and demonstration (RD&D) are needed to lower costs to the point where the technology can be widely cost-competitive across coastal regions.
More work is also needed to expand coastal infrastructure for floating offshore wind, advance manufacturing practices, and build a domestic supply chain to pave the way for widespread deployment.18 Because there have only been a small number of floating offshore wind energy projects deployed, more research is needed to characterize potential impacts of floating systems on the marine environment, and to design systems to maximize the potential for ocean co-use.
This DOE offshore wind energy strategy proposes to advance offshore wind energy deployment through four major initiatives, each using DOE’s broad portfolio of resources and capabilities to catalyze the technology’s development in the near and long terms and establish the U.S. as a global leader in this space. These DOE initiatives (shown in Fig. 4) address the specific research and development (R&D), supply chain, and deployment needs associated with offshore wind technologies, transmission, and co-generation.18
NOW: NEAR-TERM OFFSHORE WIND
To meet the Biden administration’s 30-GW-by-2030 goal and unlock a pathway to 110 GW by 2050, DOE is establishing the Near-term Offshore Wind (NOW) initiative. This initiative promotes the development of fixed-bottom offshore wind energy by lowering costs, spurring supply chain development, and informing expanded, sustainable and just deployment. NOW features the following R&D efforts.
Reduce the cost of fixed-bottom offshore wind to $51/megawatt-hour (MWh) by 2030 from 2021 levels of $73/MWh19 through a number of items. These include optimizing the design of wind turbines and wind plant layouts through enhanced understanding of the short- and long-term U.S. offshore wind resource and meteorological, ocean and geophysical characteristics. This optimization would reduce costs through higher energy production, longer wind turbine system lifetimes, and lower development expenses and material use.
Another item is upscaling of wind turbines through systems engineering and testing, validating, and demonstrating the many innovations that will enable larger, more powerful turbines (e.g., superconducting generators, active turbine controls) while exploring the need for, costs and benefits of, and pathways to standardizing turbine sizes. Then there is developing installation, operations, and maintenance strategies that reduce complexity and labor at sea while mitigating adverse impacts on the ocean environment (e.g., remote maintenance, noise mitigation measures during installation).
The Initiative will support the development of a robust domestic offshore wind supply chain to grow to more than 30 GW of fixed-bottom installations and operations. This will be accomplished in part by publishing road maps of offshore wind supply chain needs, including ports, manufacturing, and Tier 2 (sub-assemblies) and Tier 3 (sub-components) suppliers, informed by holistic analysis.
In addition, officials will convene and coordinate with stakeholders to advance effective and efficient supply chain planning and development. They will promote the development and adoption of serial production practices in domestic manufacturing facilities through dedicated design studies and sector coordination efforts.
The Initiative will support the development of construction, operations and maintenance vessels by assessing needs and gaps, conducting R&D to advance and demonstrate clean-fuel vessels, and facilitating access to financing, to fill critical vessel needs. Officials also will facilitate the deployment of offshore wind power plants through federal financing. Finally, there will be support to develop a diverse, equitable and inclusive future offshore wind energy workforce by analyzing the timing and geography of future workforce needs and establishing a network to ensure coordinated development of programming and expanded training programs to fill key workforce gaps.
The Initiative will inform just, sustainable and timely development of fixed-bottom offshore wind energy. One way to do this is to support community engagement and social science to understand impacts on communities and economies and work to ensure that underserved communities benefit from offshore wind energy development. Another route is to support research to evaluate, avoid, minimize and mitigate impacts on ocean co-uses, including fishing, tribal equities, and other federal missions. Engaging in R&D to improve the recyclability of wind turbine blades.
Another method is to develop technologies and practices to reduce radar system interference from offshore wind turbines. There will also be support for research to understand and reduce environmental impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind energy deployment in the U.S., including developing monitoring and impact mitigation technologies that will help inform project design and operation, as well as reduce environmental impacts on marine ecosystems and wildlife.
There will be an effort to collect and analyze data for informed decision-making about offshore wind energy lease area delineation for fixed-bottom facilities; through these activities, DOE could support BOEM’s decision-making through analysis, resource and physical data collection activities, and techno-economic tools. Finally, there will be support of development of a diverse, equitable and inclusive future offshore wind energy workforce by analyzing the timing and geography of future workforce needs and establishing a network to ensure coordinated development of programming and expanded training programs to fill key workforce gaps.
FORWARD: FLOATING OFFSHORE WIND ADVANCED R&D
To unlock a pathway to 110 GW by 2050, U.S. offshore wind energy must extend into deeper waters, comprising about two-thirds of the nation’s potential.20 21 In September 2022, the Biden administration announced a goal of deploying 15 GW of floating offshore wind capacity by 2035.22 Floating offshore wind will enable the U.S. West Coast, Gulf of Maine, and deeper waters offshore all U.S. coasts to tap into this powerful resource.
Because the floating offshore wind energy industry—and related technologies—are relatively new, the U.S. can assume a leadership role in commercializing these technologies on a large scale. The Floating Offshore Wind Advanced Research and Development (FORWARD) initiative establishes U.S. leadership in floating offshore wind design, manufacturing and deployment by addressing the most urgent RD&D, supply chain, and siting needs.
In recognition of its great potential and the critical need to address RD&D challenges, DOE, the U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Commerce, and U.S. Department of Transportation launched the Floating Offshore Wind ShotTM in September 2022 (see story below).23 This Energy Earthshot combines FORWARD with the floating activities from CONNECT and TRANSFORM for a holistic and impactful push to bringing floating offshore wind to U.S. waters, Fig. 5. For instance, developing critical transmission technologies (CONNECT), such as dynamic cables for floating offshore wind applications, is part of the Floating Offshore Wind Shot.
FORWARD, with support from DOE, has a number of initiatives that it aims to fulfill, as outlined in these next sections.
Reduce the cost of floating offshore wind energy in deep waters to $45/MWh by 2035 from today’s estimated $150/MWh.26 One way is to enable use of increasingly more efficient and larger wind turbines through integrated turbine and floating platform system designs, components and controls while evaluating and exploring pathways to increase wind turbine size and improve floating system design standardization.
In addition, the program will develop serial manufacturing practices in domestic manufacturing facilities. It also will advance systems engineering and controls co-design to reduce weight, increase efficiency, and reduce costs.
FORWARD will support the development of new mooring, anchoring, dynamic cables, and floating substation concepts for deepwater deployment. Lastly, it will develop operations and maintenance strategies and increasing wind turbine reliability to reduce periods of non-operation and reduce labor at sea through remote system health monitoring, inspection, and maintenance capabilities incorporating artificial intelligence and predictive maintenance.
Support the development of a domestic supply chain to facilitate deployment of 15 GW or more by 2035. The program will do this by developing analyses and road maps of manufacturing, port, and supply chain investment needs along the West Coast, Gulf of Maine, and other U.S. regions. It will convene stakeholders and collaborate with federal agencies, states, and the floating offshore wind energy industry to develop and execute plans to fill high-priority supply chain gaps in alignment with analyses and road maps.
In addition, FORWARD will advance serial manufacturing for a range of wind turbine components, with an initial emphasis on turbine platforms. It is expected to tailor design of floating systems, installation, and manufacturing practices to align with U.S. infrastructure and manufacturing capabilities. The program also will fill critical gaps in U.S. vessels, manufacturing facilities, and floating offshore wind plants through federal financing. Finally, it will identify and support the workforce needed to install and operate floating offshore wind facilities while promoting workforce diversity, equity, inclusion and accessibility.
Inform fair, sustainable and timely development of floating offshore wind energy in deep waters. Officials expect to do this by leveraging lessons learned from fixed-bottom development to ensure that underserved communities benefit from floating offshore wind development. They also will support community engagement in floating offshore wind development planning and conduct social science and socioeconomic research to understand the impacts of offshore wind energy on coastal communities and economies.
The program will fund research to characterize, avoid, minimize and mitigate potential environmental impacts and promote co-use of ocean space, including for fisheries, tribal equities, and other federal missions, with a focus on the unique impacts and geographies of floating offshore wind energy development. It will develop technologies and practices to reduce radar interference from floating offshore wind turbines. In addition, FORWARD will support research to inform the siting, development, and operations of floating offshore wind systems in deepwater habitats in coordination with federal and state agencies, with a near-term focus on the West Coast.
CONNECT: TRANSMISSION SOLUTIONS FOR LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENT
The coastal bulk transmission systems in most U.S. regions are not equipped to accommodate large amounts of new offshore wind energy. Developing transmission offshore is complicated and largely uncharted territory for the U.S. Developing transmission infrastructure introduces a wide range of technical, regulatory, social and environmental issues that fall under many jurisdictions at the federal, state and regional levels. Collaborative, proactive and long-term transmission planning and phased grid development are vital to the increased certainty and pace of offshore wind energy development.
Transmission solutions must not only be cost-effective, but also reduce environmental and ocean co-use impacts. As a result, the CONNECT initiative aims to facilitate the development of, and investment in, transmission infrastructure solutions for large-scale offshore wind deployment and enhanced grid reliability and resilience through key partnerships, analysis, planning, R&D, and transmission infrastructure. The goals of CONNECT are stated in the next several sections.
Coordinate and inform planning for a transmission system that integrates offshore wind energy with the U.S. electricity grid. This can be accomplished by convening and coordinating planning efforts for the design and construction of an offshore wind transmission network that serves individual projects and regional power markets and is integrated into the onshore transmission system.
In addition, this initiative will conduct analyses to inform regional transmission development, including analysis of future offshore wind transmission topologies, gauging the benefits and costs of transmission options, identification of routing trade-offs, and spatial analysis to reduce use conflicts. It also will provide technical assistance for regional planning entities and communities.
Support technology innovation to increase offshore grid reliability, resilience and interoperability. The program will facilitate R&D on cybersecurity, control systems, and power electronics to reduce energy losses and increase the value of offshore wind to the power system. It also will develop or refine technologies to increase the performance, reliability and interoperability of offshore wind transmission, such as high-voltage direct current (HVDC) applications, improved electrical hardware for reliable operations in harsh ocean environments, dynamic power cables and floating substations, and interoperable controls, communications, and protection equipment.
Support expansion of reliable and resilient grid infrastructure. This will be achieved by coordinating with federal and state agencies to identify the investment priorities for transmission manufacturing facilities to enable more than 110 GW of offshore wind capacity by 2050. The program also will support critical investments in transmission infrastructure through federal loan guarantees, grants, and other mechanisms as part of the Building a Better Grid Initiative.27
TRANSFORM: EXPANDED OFFSHORE WIND CO-GENERATION
TRANSFORM aims to support the technical innovation of clean energy solutions needed to decarbonize all segments of the economy. The TRANSFORM initiative will advance offshore wind co-generation technologies, also known as wind-to-X technologies, which use offshore wind energy to produce another energy solution, such as hydrogen co-generation, in support of widespread electrification and a net-zero economy.
Offshore wind energy can be a key enabler of this transition, because it can be deployed at utility scale, mitigates the land-use requirements of other generation sources, and can be coupled (on land or offshore) with other clean energy technologies. TRANSFORM will fund technology R&D activities, establish demonstration projects to prove technical viability, and facilitate DOE loans that support investments into co-generation from offshore wind. Specifically, the goals of TRANSFORM are outlined in the passages below.
TRANSFORM will promote storage and “wind-to-X” technologies from offshore wind energy. This will be done by advancing coupled wind-storage systems to enable their widespread adoption and address intermittency challenges associated with variable renewable energy generation. This effort includes techno-economic analysis of offshore storage to inform its economic deployment and R&D to advance coupled offshore wind-storage systems to extend their use cases and performance in different power markets.
It also involves optimizing clean-fuel co-generation technologies to transition the transportation and agriculture industries to full decarbonization (e.g., clean hydrogen28); this includes conducting techno-economic analysis of hydrogen and other clean fuels to inform economic deployment and hybridization strategies and R&D, to advance safe hydrogen and other clean-fuel production technologies.
Officials also will support research and demonstration of wind co-generation, also known as wind-to-X technologies, including energy storage and clean-fuel production, and the establishment of offshore energy hubs as a center for operations, transmission, and storage facilities.
Support the development of offshore wind energy hubs. This can be done by investigating the potential for offshore wind energy hubs to serve as important multisector tools in a net-zero economy; this includes analyzing techno-economic feasibility and regional needs for offshore wind hubs to evaluate trade-offs and coordinate planning.
In addition, the effort would involve conducting R&D to lower the cost and increase the efficiency of hubs to incorporate wind energy with other technologies to optimize energy and space use and avoid, minimize and mitigate any adverse environmental effects. Also required would be establishing and coordinating offshore wind energy hubs to demonstrate their technical feasibility and support financing to facilitate offshore wind energy hub development.
DOE CONTRIBUTING OFFICES
DOE seeks to build on the expertise, capabilities, and resources across a range of its offices to promote offshore wind energy. This summary has identified the many opportunities for DOE action, including the many offices that might engage in the focus areas of this strategy. These areas include R&D to lower costs; efforts to promote just, sustainable and timely deployment; transmission research and coordination; stakeholder engagement; supply chain development; and many other key facets of offshore wind energy deployment. Each office contributes to one or more critical areas of need.
1. “FACT SHEET: Biden Administration Jumpstarts Offshore Wind Energy Projects to Create Jobs,” The White House, 2021. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/03/29/fact-sheet-biden-administration-jumpstarts-offshore-wind-energy-projects-to-create-jobs.
2. “FACT SHEET: Biden-Harris Administration Announces New Actions to Expand U.S. Offshore Wind Energy,” The White House, 2022. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2022/09/15/fact-sheet-biden-harris-administration-announces-new-actions-to-expand-u-s-offshore-wind-energy
3. Offshore Wind Energy Strategies, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 2022. https://www.energy.gov/sites/default/files/2022-01/offshore-wind-energy-strategies-report-january-2022.pdf
4. Musial, W., P. Spitsen, P. Duffy, P. Beiter, M. Marquis, et al, Offshore Wind Market Report: 2022 Edition, 2022. https://www.energy.gov/sites/default/files/2022-08/offshore_wind_market_report_2022.pdf
6 . Lopez, A., R. Green, T. Williams, E. Lantz, G. Buster, and B. Roberts, “Offshore Wind Energy Technical Potential for the Contiguous United States,” 2022. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy22osti/83650.pdf
7.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2022. https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/narrative/pdf/AEO2022_Narrative.pdf
8. Lantz, E., G. Barter, P. Gilman, D. Keyser, T. Mai, et al. Power Sector, Supply Chain, Jobs, and Emissions Implications of 30 Gigawatts of Offshore Wind Power by 2030, 2021. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy21osti/80031.pdf
9. Shields, M., J. Stefek, F. Oteri, M. Kreider, E. Gill, et al, A Supply Chain Road Map for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy23osti/84710.pdf
10. DOE, Offshore Wind Energy Strategies, https://www.energy.gov/sites/default/files/2022-01/offshore-wind-energy-strategies-report-january-2022.pdf
11. DOE, Offshore Wind Energy Strategies, 2022. https://www.energy.gov/sites/default/files/2022-01/offshore-wind-energy-strategies-report-january-2022.pdf
12. Inflation Reduction Act of 2022,R.5376, 117th Congress, 2022. https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/5376/text
13. The White House, “Building A Clean Energy Economy: A Guidebook to the Inflation Reduction Act’s Investments in Clean Energy and Climate Action,” January 2023, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/Inflation-Reduction-Act-Guidebook.pdf
14. “Offshore Wind Energy Strategies,” DOE, 2022.
15. This water depth is not a hard limit and floating substructures might get deployed in water depths shallower than 60 m, depending on economic feasibility and siting considerations.
16. Lopez, A., R. Green, T. Williams, E. Lantz, G. Buster, and Roberts, 2022. “Offshore Wind Energy Technical Potential for the Contiguous United States,” 2022. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy22osti/83650.pdf
17. Adapted from: Musial, W., P. Beiter, P. Schwabe, T. Tian, T. Stehly, et al, 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report, 2017. https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/08/f35/2016%20Offshore%20Wind%20Technologies%20Market%20Report.pdf
18. Shields, M., J. Stefek, F. Oteri, M. Kreider, E. Gill, et al, A Supply Chain Road Map for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy23osti/84710.pdf
19. Stehly, T. and P. Duffy, 2021 Cost of Wind Energy Review, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy23osti/84774.pdf
20. Lopez, A., R. Green, T. Williams, E. Lantz, G. Buster, and Roberts, “Offshore Wind Energy Technical Potential for the Contiguous United States,” 2022. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy22osti/83650.pdf
21. Using a water depth threshold of 60 m between fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind.
22. The White House. 2022. “FACT SHEET: Biden-Harris Administration Announces New Actions to Expand U.S. Offshore Wind Energy.” https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2022/09/15/fact-sheet-biden-harris-administration-announces-new-actions-to-expand-u-s-offshore-wind-energy
23. The White House. 2022. “FACT SHEET: Biden-Harris Administration Announces New Actions to Expand U.S. Offshore Wind Energy.” https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2022/09/15/fact-sheet-biden-harris-administration-announces-new-actions-to-expand-u-s-offshore-wind-energy
24. The White House. 2021. “FACT SHEET: President Biden Signs Executive Order Catalyzing America’s Clean Energy Economy Through Federal Sustainability.” https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/12/08/fact-sheet-president-biden-signs-executive-order-catalyzing-americas-clean-energy-economy-through-federal-sustainability
25. The White House. 2022. “FACT SHEET: Biden-Harris Administration Announces New Actions to Expand U.S. Offshore Wind Energy.” https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2022/09/15/fact-sheet-biden-harris-administration-announces-new-actions-to-expand-u-s-offshore-wind-energy
26. This RD&D cost goal was formulated in the Floating Offshore Wind Shot for a deep-water site (1,000 m) and 125 kilometers from the point of interconnection.
27. DOE. Building a Better Grid Initiative. https://www.energy.gov/gdo/building-better-grid-initiative#:~:text=The%20Department%20of%20Energy's%20(DOE's,system%20to%20create%20a%20more
28. Efforts are coordinated with activities outlined in the “DOE National Clean Hydrogen Strategy and Roadmap,” which responds to legislative language set forth in Section 40314 of the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and was published in September 2022 as a draft for public comment. https://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/clean-hydrogen-strategy-roadmap.html
- Executive viewpoint (August 2023)
- Sustainability: A collaboration to protect the environment (August 2023)
- Management issues: A changing organization for a changing world (July 2023)
- Renewable energy technology: Transforming wind farm anchoring with oilfield technology (June 2023)
- Executive viewpoint (May 2023)
- Regional report: South Australia: New life in a mature basin: S.A.’s Cooper basin CCS and exploration opportunities (May 2023)
- Applying ultra-deep LWD resistivity technology successfully in a SAGD operation (May 2019)
- Adoption of wireless intelligent completions advances (May 2019)
- Majors double down as takeaway crunch eases (April 2019)
- What’s new in well logging and formation evaluation (April 2019)
- Qualification of a 20,000-psi subsea BOP: A collaborative approach (February 2019)
- ConocoPhillips’ Greg Leveille sees rapid trajectory of technical advancement continuing (February 2019)